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Historic

By historical reasons, Brazil had late creation of its higher education. The University of São Paulo was created only in 1934. Despite this, the Graduate Program in Physical Geography (PPGF, in Portuguese) of the University of São Paulo is one of the oldest in the country.

With the formation of the first classes of students at USP, it was sought to enable the access to the academic titulation. At that time, candidates who possessed a original PhD Dissertation, could submit it to a defense even without an advisor, and this mechanism of access to the Doctorate level prevailed during the 1940s and 1950s.

The first PhD Dissertation defended was intitled “The city of Santos and the Human Geography of the coast of the State of São Paulo” by Maria da Conceição Vicente de Carvalho, under advisoring of Pierre Monbeig.

Prof. Pierre Monbeig

In the 1940s, five professors obtained their Doctorate level, among them, Ary França (“Study on the climate of the basin of São Paulo“); Nice Lecoq Muller (“Sítios e sitiantes”, “Sites and Ranchers”); João Dias da Silveira (“Geographical study on the occidental contraforts of the Serra da Mantiqueira”, “Estudo geográfico dos contrafortes ocidentais da Mantiqueira“) and Renato Silveira Mendes (“Cultural landscapes of the Baixada Fluminense”,”Paisagens culturais da Baixada Fluminense“).

In 1946, the Departamento de Geografia was officially created with the first professors titled with collaboration of French professors.

The 1950s were marked by the separation between the courses of History and Geography. In this period, three students got their Doctorate level: Elina de Oliveira Santos advisored by João Dias da Silveira, José Ribeiro de Araújo Filho and Aziz Ab’Saber advisored by Aroldo de Azevedo.

Prof. Aroldo de Azevedo

In the 1960s, three other geographers reached the title of Doctor: Pasquale Petrone, advisored by Ary França, Antonio Rocha Penteado advisored by Aroldo de Azevedo and Carlos Augusto Figueiredo Monteiro, advisored by Aziz Ab’Saber. In this moment, the formation of the faculty added by other professors in the beginning of the 70s, would be responsible for the implementation of its concentration areas in the Graduate Programs of Physical Geography and Human Geography at USP.

The Postgraduate Diploma in Geography originated in the Brazilian universitary reform in 1969. Therefore it is derived from the number of reforms which was deployed by the Military Government in the educational sector of the country, resulting from the Atcon Report and Agreements between the Brazilian Ministry of Education and United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Those reforms signified the implementation, in the national level, of a “Postgraduate system conceived as selective and intended to form faculty for the higher education and high level researchers”. Thus, it broke an old process of academic titulation started at the University of São Paulo in the 1930s.

Prof. Aziz is the second from left, beside Pierre Monbeig. Source: IEB/USP* (Hervé Théry and Neli Aparecida de Mello-Théry (2012) Aziz Nacib Ab’Saber, Brazilian geographer. Confins, Vol. 14.)

New researches, new visions of the world and new approaches stimulated the geographical science, starting a movement that would gain the entire country in the next decade.

 

 

Prof. Carlos Augusto Figueiredo Monteiro

Prof. Carlos Augusto Figueiredo Monteiro